🍓 noa

a grammar
bakobako

preface

bakobako is a personal conlang for exploring philosophy and language. phonically and philosophically, it is heavily inspired by toki pona. aesthetically, the script was initially evolved to evoke thai writing. grammatically i used mandarin and esperanto as significant inspirations.

grammar

phonology

here are the consonants: b d k sh n w.

syllables are of the form cv(l,n). l is how the romanization writes the w sound at the end of a syllable.

here are the vowels:
high: i
mid: e o
low: a

stress is placed regularly on the second last syllable. single syllable words may be stressed or unstressed depending on context and surrounding words.

morphology

there is very little inflection to speak of. some measure words are class-exclusive. most verbs can take the prefix ke to form the perfect aspect.

be can be appended to words to negate the meaning, as in na "many" and nabe "few".

doubling up a verb forms a noun, as in bako "to speak" and bakobako "speech, language", and dal "to think" and daldal "philosophy".

appending ne to a noun forms a descriptive verb, an adjective. eg sho "water" and shone "to be wet".

verb nominalizer: double up.
ne suffix makes a descriptive verb.
sha suffix is diminutive
do suffix is augmentative
dal suffix refers to a person with that quality, or someone who does that thing
kal prefix refers to a place. kalboka "brothel"

pronouns

there is one set of personal pronouns

      1st bisha
      2nd shi
      3rd di
      

it is accepted practice to append na "many" to the end of these to explicitly reperesent we, you all, and they. this tends to only be applied in official contexts of where too much ambiguity would occur otherwise.

      1st pl bishana
      2nd pl shina
      3rd pl dina
      

a pseudo-obviative is often applied by the appending of nel "other", primarily to the 3rd person. it is not common to see both na and nel applied together.

      3rd obv dinel
      

finally, neda "person" is used as the equivalent of english "one". but in most writing, it is totally fine to use the second person in a general sense.

demonstratives

this: kido
that: kinel

all demonstratives act as standard nouns.

interrogative pronouns

bakobako has three interrogative pronouns.

      subject  object  verb
      badi     baki    bano
      

questions

when forming polar questions, the question particle "ba" is prepended to a statement.

when forming questions involving an interrogative pronoun, "ba" is prepended and the desired empty space is filled with one of the aforementioned pronouns.

quantifiers

quantifiers come before the measure word, which comes before most nouns.

indefinite pronouns (some, no, all) act as quantifiers.

numbers

counting uses base six.

      1  shoka
      2  sha
      3  kiki
      4  wikabeshoka
      5  wika
      

numbers bigger than decimal thirty six are said as "[DIGITS] a b c", where a, b, and c are the three digits making up some large number. but generally, it's not important to express bigger numbers.

parameter order

the default word order is vso.

it is also common to put the subject followed by a verb, if there is no object - bisha bodo "i am cold".

noun phrases

nouns are mostly preceded by a measure word. quantifiers precede the measure word, and the measure word cannot be dropped if a quantifier is used.

sacred measure word "o" is never dropped.

adjectives and all other modifiers come after the noun. wika shal newal "five cats", kiki shal newal wowo "three big cats".